In order to promote yeast growth, enzymatic hydrolysate was supplemented with yeast extract (10 g/L), KH2PO4 (2 g/L), (NH4)2SO4 (1 g/L) and MgSO4·7H2O (1 g/L) ( Karuppaiya et al., 2010) and medium pH was adjusted to 5.0. The mixture was inoculated with 10% (v/v) of S. cerevisiae MTCC 170 and incubated at 30 °C and 150 rpm in an incubator shaker (Scigenics Biotech, Model: Orbitek).
For Cu2+ adsorption on the algal CGP41251 under study, the highest maximum bed capacity and the longest breakthrough time is obtained at higher pH, in agreement with batch adsorption experiments as well as other studies .
Fig. 2. Breakthrough curves at 40 mg l−1 inlet concentration (4 g–6.75 ml min−1) for two initial pH conditions. The dotted and solid lines represent the fitting curves of the Thomas model.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
2.1. Materials and apparatus
Characteristics of materials (on dry basis).Proximate analysis (wt.%)Elemental analysis (wt.%)Density (kg/m3)Net calorific value (MJ/kg)VMaRMbAshcFCd,fNCHSCleOfWS220.127.116.112.83.818.104.22.168.251.2291.415.7Pap82.21.09.96.22.214.171.124.4–54.5217.115.6PVC94.9––5.1–38.84.7–49.4–1380.023.8aVM is for volatile Busulfan determined based on ASTM E897.bRM is for residual moisture determined based on ASTM E790.cAsh amount was determined based on ASTM E1102.dFC is for fixed carbon.eChlorine amount was determined based on ASTM D4208.fBy difference.Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
2.2. Procedure and conditions
The experiments were conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer (NETZSCH STA 409, Bavaria, Germany) under N2 and the environments of N2 with different extent of CO2 agent participation. The weight precision for the STA 409 is 0.01 mg. Samples including WS, Pap and the mixture of WS or Pap with 10 wt.% PVC addition. Total amount of 5 ± 0.5 mg samples were heated under 80 ml/min inflow gas at heating rates 10, 20 and 40 K/min from ambient temperature to 1270 K. N2 fraction was omitted in writing e.g. the atmosphere of 75%N2/25%CO2 is abbreviated to 25%CO2 for short. Small amount (∼5 mg for each run) and tiny particles (<200 μm) can largely diminish the heat and mass transfer limitations during degradation process ( Lopez-Gonzalez et al., 2013). Reproductivity was guaranteed by at least two runs for each measurement and the error was measured to be within ±2%.
2.4. Microbial diversity analysis
2.4.1. Microbial DNA isolation
For analyzing the microbial CAY10505 composition during the silage process, samples of B and A2 were collected on days 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, and 30, and stored at -20 °C before further analysis.
2.4.2. PCR amplification
Primer 515F (5′-GTGCCAGCMGCCGCGG-3′) and 907R (5′-CCGTCAATTCMTTTRAGTTT-3′) was used to amplify the V4-V5 regions of the bacteria 16S ribosomal RNA gene. PCR equipment (ABI GeneAmp® 9700) was used to perform polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The steps included hotstart at 95 °C for 2 min, followed by 28 cycles of denaturation at 95 °C for 30 s, annealing at 55 °C for 30 s, elongation at 72 °C for 45 s and extension at 72 °C for 10 min. The reaction were performed in a 20 μL mixture containing 4 μL of 5× FastPfu Buffer, 2 μL of 2.5 mMdNTPs, 0.4 μL of each primer (5 μM), 0.4 μL of FastPfu Polymerase, and 10 ng of template DNA. For minimizing PCR bias, PCR reactions for each sample were conducted in triplicate, and the mixtures of three PCR products were used for measuring DNA concentration and sequencing.
Substituting Eq. (1) with Eq. (5) for gaseous species and with Eq. (8) for solid species gives the minimization function of Gibbs-energy for the following Eq. (9) which is the equation of this vapor–solid system:equation(9)∑i=1N-1niΔGfi°+RTlnyiiPP°+∑kλkaik+(nCΔGfC(s)°)=0where GC(g)GC(g) is the partial molar Gibbs free Sapitinib of gaseous carbon. GC(s)GC(s) is the molar Gibbs free energy of solid carbon. GfC(s)° is the standard Gibbs function of formation of solid carbon and nCnC is the number of moles of carbon.
2.1.1. Reactions involved in the n-butanol oxidative reforming
During oxidative reforming, the steam reforming reaction occurs simultaneously with the oxidation reaction. Other reactions such as the water gas shift reaction, gasification, hydrogenation, decomposition, Boudouard reaction, partial oxidation reaction as well as oxidation reactions may also occur simultaneously some of which may be undesirable. The possible reaction routes of n-butanol oxidative reforming are shown in Table 1. Ten species including n-butanol (C4H10O), water (H2O), oxygen (O2), hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), ethylene (C2H4) and butyric aldehyde (C4H8O), as well as elemental carbon (graphite, C) as a solid were included in the simulation.
Additionally, in view of NBHT, the onset of nucleate boiling (ONB), single bubble growth, bubble coalescence, and mushroom bubble generation, which AS-604850 key mechanisms of boiling, should be quantitatively studied. The physical definitions and reasonable explanations for CHF and its triggering mechanism also have to be understood. From the ONB, the surface condition would strongly influence the entire boiling regime (single bubble growth, bubble coalescence, and mushroom bubble generation), finally CHF. However, the recent reports of CHF enhancement provided the reduced Rayleigh–Taylor instability wavelength at film boiling condition  and . As previously described in Section 3 and 4, the bubble behavior such as nucleation, growth, and departure was basically induced by the phase change phenomena from liquid to vapor. Thus, the wet liquid on the heater surface would be an important parameter to explain the NBHT and CHF mechanism according to the surface condition. On the other hand, even though the liquid cannot contact on the heater surface in film boiling such as quenching experiment, the pool boiling curve from quenching of the micro/nano structured surfaces shows the enhancement of CHF and minimum heat flux point. In addition, the Leidenfrost point on the micro/nano structured surfaces is also higher than colonial on bare surface . Here, we raised interesting questions as follows.•If the surface condition would influence the entire boiling regime from ONB to CHF by means of liquid wetting, how the surface condition in film boiling leads the reduced Rayleigh–Taylor instability wavelength?•In quenching process from film boiling to nucleate boiling, the boiling curve shows the enhancement of CHF and minimum heat flux point. At the early state of quenching (film boiling), how the vapor film feels the nano/microstructures without any liquid contact to a surface?•Based on above questions, could the surface condition influence on the entire boiling regime understand beyond the CHF?
The digestion of pure algal AICAR resulted in approximately 57% VSR , which was greater than the 47% VSR observed for WAS alone . Anaerobic co-digestion studies showed that the addition of any algal species to WAS improved VSR compared to digestion of WAS alone. These results indicate that microalgae addition will improve the digestibility of wastewater sludge and possibly generate more useful biogas. It has been observed in all the experiments that higher proportions of microalgae (25% and 37%) slightly decrease the gas production rate to 12% compared to using food waste alone. The low yield is due to several reasons which comprises of recalcitrance of few species of algae to biodegradation and inhibition of microbiological conversion process by ammonia released from biomass. Ammonia toxicity might be counteracted by co-digesting algae with high carbon organic wastes. Carbon-rich feedstock include primary and secondary municipal sludge, sorted municipal organic solid waste, FOGs, food industry waste, waste paper, and various agricultural residues. The co-digestion of algae (Scenedesmus sp. and Chlorella sp. below) with wastepaper, found that the addition of 50% wastepaper (based on volatile solids) increased methane production rate to 1170±75 ml/l day, as compared to 573±28 ml/l day of algal sludge digestion alone, both operated at 4 g VS/l day, 35 °C for 10 days. All the experimental studies proved that the algal biomass was well digested by itself under anaerobic conditions. Co-digestion of algae with other substrates has been shown to improve anaerobic digestibility of the algae by improving the feed composition .